As part of its policy to curb CO2 emissions, the Government is developing a strategy to promote energy-efficient appliances based on "market transformation" measures designed to encourage energy-efficient products and remove the worst performers (ENDS Report 273, pp 30-31 ). As a next step it will be issuing a series of discussion papers covering specific appliances examining the technical and economic potential for improving efficiency and the measures needed to achieve it.
The first paper, on lighting, was written by the Building Research Energy Conservation Support Unit (BRECSU) and issued for consultation in April. A strategy paper due later this year will set out the likely costs of the various policy options. Similar papers are planned over the coming months on domestic appliances and office equipment, electronics, heating and cooking.
Electricity consumption accounted for 32% of UK CO2 emissions in 1994, with lighting responsible for 20% of consumption (58TWh), or 6.4% of UK CO2 emissions. Within the lighting sector, non-domestic lighting accounted for 71% of electricity use.
Incandescent lights - tungsten filament and tungsten halogen light bulbs - accounted for 38% of lighting energy consumption and linear fluorescent lights made up 54%. Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) accounted for just 2% of the total market.
According to the Department of Trade and Industry, non-domestic lighting energy consumption is forecast to increase by 44% from 1994 to 2020, with higher growth rates in certain sectors such as retailing. Domestic consumption is expected to rise by 35% due to the increasing number of households.
Using 1994 market data, the paper estimates the "economic and technical potential" (ETP) - the scope for upgrading lighting equipment at an "acceptable" cost - in three areas:
Assuming that it is economic to replace GLS bulbs with CFLs for all lamps used for more than 250 hours a year, BRECSU estimates this would mean replacing 95% of GLS bulbs used in non-domestic buildings.
BRECSU adopts the working assumption that these measures are introduced in non-domestic buildings from 2000 onwards as they are refurbished, at a rate of 10% a year. On this basis, it estimates that energy consumption could be reduced by 40% between 1994-2010 under a "business as usual" scenario, saving the equivalent of 4.81 million tonnes of CO2 (as carbon, MtC) at 1994 emission factors (see table ). This represents a 13.5% contribution to the 35-36MtC which will need to be saved on current projections if the UK is to achieve its 20% reduction in emissions between 1990-2010.
Of this saving, 1.4MtC would come from households. This points to greater potential savings from all domestic appliances than the 2.0MtC suggested in last autumn's DETR consultation paper on energy-efficient consumer products.
However, the paper identifies some significant barriers to increasing the proportion of energy-efficient lighting. For commercial buildings, these include:
In the domestic sector, 69% of households do not own a CFL, according to recent research by the Electricity Association. Of these households, 47% were not intending to buy CFLs because of the initial cost. The other barriers to CFLs with integral ballasts include their shape, size and significant warm-up period.
To overcome these barriers, the paper outlines several instruments, most of which could be included in a voluntary agreement between the lighting industry and the Government. They include: