The two Directives were adopted in 1988. They established consent, risk assessment and control procedures for the contained use and deliberate release of GMOs. They should have been implemented by Member States by 23 October 1991.
In the UK, the Government succeeded only in issuing a consultation paper setting out proposals for implementing both Directives in October 1991 (ENDS Report 201, pp 29-31). But objections from the biotechnology