"Predict and provide" lives on in waste policy

One of the UK's largest man-made lakes is a monument to the folly of basing the provision of goods and services on extrapolations of what has gone before. Kielder Water in the hills of Northumberland was created on projections drawn up in the 1960s that demand for water in north-east England would continue to increase as it had done since the war. But the decline of the region's manufacturing industry quickly turned the project into a white elephant - and Kielder Water is now little more than a recreational facility.

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